Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens Welcome Center that located in Pittsburgh, United States, was designed by IKM Incorporated. The conservatory dome is designed to evoke the geometry of the historic glass houses behind it and incorporates fritted, laminated, insulated glass to control glare and heat. The convex construction provides daylight to the visitor lobby and ticketing areas below and creates a dramatic ascent to the Conservatory beyond. Calling upon principles of sustainable design, the partially earth-sheltered structure was built into the terrain to create 14 ft of usable space below ground. By placing most of the new space below grade, IKM architects and the design team determined that the Conservatory would save as much as 40 to 50 percent in annual energy costs compared to an above grade building.